this stage, an editor works with an author or writer to develop
an idea into a manuscript. The process usually includes writing
a proposal and/or an outline as well as a series of drafts.
The manuscript includes any specifications for artwork or photographs.
Depending on the material, other editors or subject experts
may review a draft of the manuscript.
The development stage may require
the following kinds of editorial expertise:
Other participants at this stage
may include co-authors, a ghostwriter, subject experts, reviewers,
and the art or design director.
software allows authors to submit manuscripts on disk. That
eliminates the need for a typesetter to re-key a manuscript,
resulting in the introduction of fewer errors. However, a
may overlook errors and inconsistencies in a polished-looking
Prototyping and user testing of software
titles and Web sites may take place at this stage.
In software and Web site development, the
role of project editor
or managing editor is usually filled by a project manager
or producer; a producer is more responsible for a project's
vision, a project manager for its execution. The new discipline
of information design
adapts aspects of traditional editorial
to interactive multimedia.
Required skills include knowledge
of "authoring" programs (the approximate equivalent
of typesetting programs for CD-ROMs and Web sites).
for digital media publications are handled by a business or
legal professional. Because digitally formatted text and artwork
can be copied easily and online publication distribution is
evolving rapidly, copyright laws are in flux in the United
States and abroad.