stage, a series of editors (overseen by a project
or production editor
or a copy chief)
prepares the manuscript for production. Their goal is to minimize
the number of changes necessary later, because making changes
once the text and visuals are laid out is more costly and increases
the likelihood of errors in the final product. Each editor checks
the previous editor's work and/or inspects the manuscript for
consistency, accuracy, and other issues determined by the nature
of the project.
A project or production editor also drives the
design process by writing a design survey--an analysis of the
manuscript's elements, on which the designer bases the design
and specs--and codes the manuscript for typesetting or formatting.
The designer bases design samples on representative portions
of manuscript and on art specs.
The manuscript preparation and design stage
may require the following kinds of editorial expertise:
Other participants at this stage
may include a designer and a photo researcher.
speeds up manuscript preparation and design and makes heavy
editing easier. Features such as spell checking and search-and-replace
operations make it easier to ensure accuracy and consistency
in a manuscript.
However, editors and proofreaders
not used to working online may need time to get used to reading
text on screen; they may initially miss more errors than they
would on paper. An additional consideration is that not all online editing
methods leave an editing trail that makes it possible to trace the author
of a particular change.
On interactive media projects, an
may work with a writer to develop design specs.